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A Captured Santa Claus
A Captured Santa Claus
A Kidnapped Santa Claus
Try as they might, the Daemons of the Caves could not tempt old Santa Claus in any way. Quite the contrary, his cheery laughter disconcerted the evil ones and showed to them the folly of their undertaking. It's well known that no harm can come to Santa Claus while he is in the Laughing Valley, for the fairies, and ryls, and knooks all protect him. But on Christmas Eve he drives his reindeer out into the big world, carrying a sleighload of toys and pretty gifts to the children. Christmas Eve is the one time when his enemies have a chance to injure him. So the Daemons made their plans and awaited the arrival of Christmas Eve. Santa bridled his reindeer to the sleigh, and took to the air -- when suddenly a strange thing happened: a rope shot through the moonlight and a big noose that was in the end of it settled over the arms and body of Santa Claus and drew tight. Before he could resist or even cry out he was jerked from the seat of the sleigh and tumbled head foremost into a snowbank, while the reindeer rushed onward with the load of toys and carried it quickly out of sight and sound. Such a surprising experience confused old Santa for a moment, and when he had collected his senses he found that the wicked Daemons had pulled him from the snowdrift and bound him tightly with many coils of the stout rope. And then they carried the kidnapped Santa Claus away to their mountain, where they thrust the prisoner into a secret cave and chained him to the rocky wall so that he could not escape.
A Kidnapped Santa Claus
Santa is kidnapped! Will he be freed in time for Christmas?
A Defective Santa Claus
A Defective Santa Claus Allus when our Pa he's away Nen Uncle Sidney comes to stay At our house here-so Ma an' me An' Etty an' Lee-Bob won't be Afeard ef anything at night Might happen-like Ma says it might.
Object-pronouns In Dependent Clauses
An excerpt from the INTRODUCTION. I. Definition of Title.
The title of this work, Object-Pronouns in Dependent Clauses: A Study in Old Spanish Word-Order, is perhaps too inclusive. The investigation concerns itself only with the phenomenon which I shall callinterpolation. Throughout this study, interpolation will be used to mean the interpolation, between an unstressed object-pronoun and its following governing verb, of another word or other words, not unstressed object-pronouns in similar construction. In Old Spanish this phenomenon is almost without exception confined to dependent clauses,i.e., clauses that begin with a subordinating conjunction, a relative pronoun, or a relative adverb with conjunctional force.
II. Previous Notices Of Interpolation.
Interpolation is merely mentioned by Diez, but with no attempt to determine the conditions of its occurrence. I find the next reference inReinhardstoettner's Grammatik der portugiesischen Sprache (1878), s. 391.1 Paul Foerster, in his Spanische Sprachlehre (1880) merely distinguishes interpolation as of two sorts, the first with the negative particle, the second with other words.2 R. Thurneysen(Zeitschrift f. rom. Phil, xvi (1892), ss. 289-307, Zur Stellung des Verbums im Altfranzosischen) discusses the position of unstressed words and seeks to prove that the latter tend to become enclitic to the first stressed word of the sentence or clause. Incidentally he mentions interpolation in Old Spanish and Portuguese and raises the question whether the cases of it are archaisms or innovations. Emil Gessner(Zeitschr. , xvii (1893), ss. 1-54, Das spanische Personalpronomen) briefly notices the phenomenon without, however, defining the syntactical conditions of its occurrence. His notice is chiefly valuable for its chronological data with regard to the disappearance of interpolation in Spanish.4 S. Grafenberg (Rom. Forsch., Vii (1893), s. 547) in the grammatical notes to his edition of Don Juan Manuel'sLibro del Cavallero et del Escudero mentions the postposition of the particle non to the object-pronoun but does not notice any other variety of interpolation.
Meyer-Lubke (Zeitschr. f. rom. Ph., xxi (1897), ss. 313334, Zur Stellung der tonlosen Objektspronomina im Romanischen) maintains with Thurneysen that unstressed object-pronouns were originally always enclitic and considers interpolation in Old Spanish and Portuguese to be a survival of Latin usage. He also attempts to define the syntactical categories in which interpolation usually occurs. In theGrammatik der romanischen Sprachen, in, s. 764, Â§ 715, Meyer-Lubke sums up the argument of theZeitichrift article but omits all reference to the syntactical categories....
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